As Russia invaded Ukraine, President Vladimir Putin blatantly threatened to use nuclear weapons. A Western military intervention could lead to an incalculable escalation, and the return of nuclear weapons in Europe has experts worried. After the end of the cold war, thousands of nuclear weapons were withdrawn from Europe. But three decades later, the political situation has once more escalated dramatically, with increasing levels of new nuclear weapons in Europe. Even in 2018, experts that the situation had deteriorated. At that time, U.S. President Donald Trump’s decision to exit the INF Treaty caused the greatest concern. But in 2022, Moscow is openly threatening to use nuclear weapons in war.